What is the Competency Based Curriculum (CBC)?

The Kenyan Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) is an innovative instructional model of education that is focused on the acquisition and demonstration of competencies. It emphasizes developing real-world skills like critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity, rather than focusing solely on the memorization of information. The aim of the CBC is to enable students to acquire a deeper understanding, develop key skills for success in life, and reach their full potential.

. It was launched in 2017 to build skills and knowledge vital for real-life situations. It is divided into three levels: early years, middle school and senior school. By the end of the learning period, each pupil is required to have the following abilities:-


  • Communication and Collaboration
  • Citizenship
  • Learning to learn
  • Digital literacy
  • Critical thinking and problem-solving
  • Imagination and creativity
  • Self-efficacy


Life values include:-

  • Integrity
  • Love
  • Patriotism
  • Unity
  • Respect
  • Peace
  • Responsibility


A few changes have since been made since the introduction of CBC education. For example, classes are now called Grade, while ECD has two levels, Pre-Primary 1 and 2 (PP1 and PP2). Teachers now use learning resources in place of teaching aids. Other changes include:-


  • Higher education should be at least three years.
  • Senior school is also three years from grade 10 to 12. Here, teachers aim to lay a foundation for further education at the tertiary level and even after the students start working.
  • The upper primary is from grades four to six, where all the exploration and experimentation happens.
  • The lower primary is grades 1 to 3
  • Preprimary 1 and 2, which were formerly known as ECD.


There will be mandatory subjects from lower secondary schools, while others will be an option. If you would like to learn even more about CBC education, please visit the official KICD website.